Ingredients in Indian Cooking

See also:

ajwain / carom seed / bishop's weedTrachyspermum ammiअजवाइन (ajvain)Tiny brown seeds with strong peppery-thyme flavor, popular in North Indian cooking.
allspicePimenta dioicaकबाब चीनी (kebab cheeni)Dried fruit resembling large brown peppercorns. Flavour of cinammon, nutmeg, and cloves. Not frequently used in Indian cuisine.
almondPrunus dulcisबादाम (badam)
anisePimpinella anisumछोटी सौंफ (choti saunf)"little fennel"
A mixture of aniseed with roasted dry coconut and poppy seeds are eaten after meals as a mouth freshener.
asafoetidaFerula assafoetidaहींग (hing)Dried gum resin of an east Indian plant. Has strong unpleasant smell when raw, but has flavour of garlic in cooked dishes.
aubergine / brinjal / eggplantSolanum melongenaबैंगन (baingan)
bananaMusa acuminata × balbisianaकेला (kela)
basil, holyOcimum tenuiflorum, formerly O. sanctumतुलसी (tulsi)Basil variety cultivated for religious and medicinal purposes, rather than cooking.
basil seedsOcimum basilicumसब्जा (sabja);
तुकमारिया (tukmaria)
Gelatinous coating when soaked in water, so look like little eyes or frog spawn in drinks like falooda.
bay leafLaurus nobilisतेज पत्ता (tej patta)Compare entry "Malabathrum / Malabar leaf"
bitter melon / bitter gourdMomordica charantiaकरेला (karela)
black cuminBunium persicumकाला जीरा (kala jeera)
शाही जीरा (shahi jeera)
हिमाली जीरा (himali jeera)
"black cumin"
"imperial cumin"
"Himalayan cumin"
black cumin / nigella / onion seedNigella sativaकलौंजी (kalonji)Often sprinkled over breads before baking.
black-eyed peaVigna unguiculata subspecies unguiculataलोबिया (lobiya)Cooked as dhal.
black gramVigna mungoउड़द (urad)Cooked as dhal. Main ingredient of South Indian dishes, idli and dosa. Popular in Punjabi cuisine, used to make dhal makhani.
brinjal / aubergine / eggplantSolanum melongenaबैंगन (baingan)
butter, clarifiedघी (ghee)
carawayCarum carviअजमाद (ajmaad)
विलायती जीरा (vilaayti jeera)
According to Khana Khazana, "If you ever find references to caraway in books about Middle East, Indian or Far East cooking, then the most probable explanation is a translation mistake and you should probably read cumin[...] Use of Caraway Seeds in Indian cuisine is limited. Typically it has been used in some regions for flavoring rice dishes like Pulao."
cardamom, blackAmomum subulatumकाले इलायची (kale elaichi)
बड़ी इलायची (bari elaichi)
Coarser in flavour and larger in size than green cardamom.
cardamom, greenElettaria cardamomumछोटी इलायची (choti elaichi)
carom seed / ajwain / bishop's weedTrachyspermum ammiअजवाइन (ajvain)Tiny brown seeds with strong peppery-thyme flavor, popular in North Indian cooking.
carrotDaucus carotaगाजर (gajar)
cashew nutAnacardium occidentaleकाजू (kajoo)
cassiaCinnamomum aromaticumजंगली दालचीनी (jangli dalchini)"wild cinnamon"
cauliflowerBrassica oleraceaगोभी (gobi)
celery seedApium graveolensअज्मुद (ajmud)Compare entry "radhuni".
celery, wild / radhuniTrachyspermum roxburghianumअज्मुद (ajmud)According to Wikipedia, these "small dried fruits, mistakenly referred to as seeds, are similar in appearance to those of ajwain, celery, and caraway. Because of their similarity in both appearance and flavor, it is often confused or substituted with celery seed."
charoliBuchanania lanzanचिरौन्जी (charoli)Tiny almond-flavoured dried seeds commonly used in sweets in India.
cheese, Indian / paneerपनीर (paneer)Indian fresh cheese made by curdling heated milk with acid.
chickpeaCicer arietinumचना (chana)
छोले (chole)
chickpea, desi / Bengal gramCicer arietinumकाले चने (kala chana)"black chickpea"
Smaller and darker than the kabuli type chickpea, with a higher fibre content and hence a very low GI index. Used to make chana dhal.
chickpea, green (unripe)हरा चने (hara chana)
chickpea, kabuli / garbanzo beanCicer arietinumकाबुली चने (kabuli chana)Larger and lighter coloured than the desi type chickpea.
chilliCapsicum annuumमिर्च (mirch)
chilli, greenCapsicum annuumहरी मिर्च (hari mirch)
chilli, redCapsicum annuumलाल मिर्च (lal mirch)
cilantro / corianderCoriandrum sativumधनिया (dhaniya)
cinammonCinnamomum verumदालचीनी (dalchini)
cloveSyzygium aromaticumलौंग (laung)
coconutCocos nuciferaनारियल (narial)
coconut, dessicatedसूखा नारियल (sukha narial)
coconut milkनारियल का दूध (narial ka doodh)
coriander / cilantroCoriandrum sativumधनिया (dhaniya)
corn / maizeZea maysमक्का (makka)
cuminCuminum cyminumजीरा (jeera)
curry leavesMurraya koenigiiकरीपत्ता (karipatta)
मीथ णीम (mitha neem)
मीथ नीम पत्ता (mitha neem patta)
datePhoenix dactyliferaखजूर (khajur)
dillAnethum graveolensसोआ (soa)Both the leaves (dill weed) and the seeds may be eaten.
drumstickMoringa oleiferaसहजन (sahjan)From Wikipedia: "The immature green pods called “drumstick” are probably the most valued and widely used part of the tree. They are commonly consumed in India and are generally prepared in a similar fashion to green beans and have a slight asparagus taste. The seeds are sometimes removed from more mature pods and eaten like peas or roasted like nuts. The flowers are edible when cooked and are said to taste like mushrooms. The roots are shredded and used as a condiment in the same way as horseradish; however, they contain the alkaloid spirochin, a potentially fatal nerve-paralyzing agent."
eggplant / aubergine / brinjalSolanum melongenaबैंगन (baingan)
fennel seedFoeniculum vulgareसौंफ (saunf)
fenugreekTrigonella foenum-graecumमेथी (methi)
fenugreek leaves, driedTrigonella foenum-graecumकसूरी मेथी (kasoori methi)
flour, gramबेसन (besan)Flour made from chickpeas.
flour, plainमैदा (maida)Wheat flour used in Indian cooking and baking.
garam masalaगरम मसाला (garam masala)" hot mixture"
garbanzo bean / chickpea, kabuliCicer arietinumकाबुली चने (kabuli chana)
garlicAllium sativumलहसुन (lahsun)
ginger, driedZingiber officinaleसोंठ (sonth)
ginger, freshZingiber officinaleअदरख (adrakh)
gum tragacanthकटीरा गोंद (katira goond)A thickener and coating for desserts.
horse gramMacrotyloma uniflorumकुलथी (kulith)One of the lesser known beans, generally used as cattle feed but also eaten in South Indian states.
Indian gooseberryPhyllanthus emblicaआँवला (aamla)
jaggeryगुड़ (gur)Unrefined sugar made from boiling raw sugarcane juice or palm sap.
kidney beanPhaseolus vulgarisराजमा (rajma)
lady's finger / okraAbelmoschus esculentusभिंडी (bhindi)
lemonCitrus × limonनींबू (nimbu)Compare entry "lime".
lentil, redLens culinarisमसूर (masoor)
lime, acid, Persian / TahitiCitrus × latifoliaनींबू (nimbu)Compare entry "lemon".
lime, sweetCitrus × limonमीठा नींबू (meetha nimbu)
Malabathrum / Malabar leafCinnamomum tamala / Cinnamomum tejpataतेज पत्ता (tej patta)Often erroneously labelled "Indian Bay Leaves". Compare entry "bay leaf".
maceMyristica fragransजावित्री (javitri)From the covering of the nutmeg seed.
maize / cornZea maysमक्का (makka)
mango powderMangifera indicaआमचूर (amchoor)Tangy seasoning made from green, unripe mangoes which have been peeled, thinly sliced, sun-dried and ground.
meat, genericगोश्त (gosht)
mintMentha spicataपुदीना (pudina)
mung beanVigna radiataमूँग (mung)Cooked as dhal. Main ingredient of the South Indian soup rasam
mustard seed, blackBrassica nigraकाली राई (kaali raai)
काली सरसों (kali sarson)
लाल सरसों (lal sarson)
राई (raai)
nigella / black cumin / onion seedNigella sativaकलौंजी (kalonji)Often sprinkled over breads before baking.
nutmegMyristica fragrans, Myristica malabaricaजायफल (jaiphal)
okra / lady's fingerAbelmoschus esculentusभिंडी (bhindi)
onionAllium cepaप्याज़ (pyaz)
गण्डा (kanda)
onion seed / black cumin / nigellaNigella sativaकलौंजी (kalonji)Often sprinkled over breads before baking.
paneer / cheese, Indianपनीर (paneer)Indian fresh cheese made by curdling heated milk with acid.
parsleyPetroselinum crispumअजमोदा (ajmoda)
pea, splitPisum sativumमटर की दाल (mater ki dhal)Not commonly used on the Indian sub-continent.
pepper, blackPiper nigrumकाली मिर्च (kaali mirch)
गोल मिर्च (gol mirch)
pigeon peaCajanus cajanतूअर (toor)
अरहर (arhar)
Split pigeon peas (toor dhal) are one of the most popular pulses in India and the main ingredient of the South Indian stew sambar.
pistachioPistacia veraपिस्ता (pista)
pomegranatePunica malusअनार (anar)
pomegranate seed, driedPunica malusअनारदाना (anardana)
poppy seedsPapaver somniferumखसखस (khaskhas)
potatoSolanum tuberosumआलू (aloo)
pulse, splitदाल (dhal)From Wikipedia: "[Generic term for] preparation of pulses (dried lentils, peas or beans) which have been stripped of their outer hulls and split"
pulse, wholeसाबुत (sabut)
radhuni / celery, wildTrachyspermum roxburghianumअज्मुद (ajmud)According to Wikipedia, these "small dried fruits, mistakenly referred to as seeds, are similar in appearance to those of ajwain, celery, and caraway. Because of their similarity in both appearance and flavor, it is often confused or substituted with celery seed." Compare entry "celery".
rice, basmatiOryza sativaबासमती चावल (basmati chaaval)
roseRosaगुलाब (gulab)
rose waterगुलाब पानी(gulab pani)
saffronCrocus sativusकेसर (kesar)
जाफरान (zaafraan)
saltनमक (namak)
salt, blackकाला नमक (kala namak)Natural volcanic rock salt mined in the Himalayas salt ranges and processed. Dark violet colour from iron sulphide, and slight bitter taste and distinctive smell from sulphur compounds.
semolinaरवा (rawa)
सूजी (sooji)
Coarse wheat flour.
sesame seedsSesamum indicumतिल (til)
silver foilवर्ख (varak)Thin edible layer of silver, used for garmishing Indian sweets.
spinachSpinacia oleraceaपालक (palak)
star aniseIllicium verumचक्र फूल (chakra phool)Component of garam masala
tamarindTamarindus indicaइमली (imli)
taroColocasia esculentaअरबी (arbi)
turmericCurcuma longaहल्दी (haldi)
vermicelliसेवई (sev)Often made from arrowroot or cornflour rather than wheat, in drinks/dessert like falooda. Also dried chickpea flour noodles sprinkled over chaat dishes.
yoghurtदही (dahi)
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